The Top 5 Spring Flowering Trees

February 18, 2020

By Matt

Vibrant Pops of Color!

The fresh blossoms that spring forward with the arrival of springtime each year gives a sense of renewal as trees bring life forth again. Spring is synonymous for the bursts of color that come from plants.

We have featured five of the best trees that produce the most abundant blossoms while providing the best color during spring. 

  • Redbud (Cercis canadensis)
  • Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)
  • Yoshino Cherry (Prunus x yedoensis)
  • Saucer Magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana)
  • Crabapple (Malus spp.)
“Cherry Blossoms 5/8/18 #bostonpublicgardens #spring #floweringtrees” by Sharon Mollerus is licensed under CC by 2.0 

Redbud (Cercis canadensis)

Busting With Blossoms

The redbud (Cercis canadensis) is a stunning tree that produces unique looking blossoms that resemble little orchids. This tree races to bloom before other trees once spring arrives. It is generally one of the earliest bloomers of spring displaying a full canopy of pinks, purples, magentas, and rose. The orchid-like blooms pop out of pods that look like beans or legumes.

“Cercis canadensis (Eastern redbud)” by Save the Dunes is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 

What Is A Redbud?

The redbud is a native deciduous tree belonging to the pea family. It can be found throughout the eastern half of the U.S. These trees are not large and are a great addition to most landscape situations. Once mature, the eastern redbud has a vase-like shape. 

Genus: Cercis (Greek: meaning ‘weaver’s shuttle’)
Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae (pea family) 
Species: Cercis Canadensis (epithet: references Canada)
Height: 20-30 feet
Width: 25-20 feet
Zone: 4-8
Growth Rate: Medium (13-24” per year)
Sun: Partial Shade to Full Sun
State Tree: Oklahoma

Also known as: eastern redbud, Judas tree

See the source image

Benefits Of Planting A Redbud

1. Prolific Blooms
Blossoms appear before the leaves do…
Blossoms on this tree appear before the leaves do. The redbud produces an amazing canopy of beautiful orchid-like blooms that cover the tree with pinks, magentas, and purples.

2. Its Native Element

The redbud is a native tree to the eastern half of the U.S., and because of this, it will grow well in most conditions within this region. 

3. Size-Considerate

This tree is considered small to mid-size and is great for planting in various landscape situations. It can be grown as a single specimen or in an understory environment.

4. Heart-Shaped Leaves

The leaves are beautifully shaped into hearts which gives this tree a further uniqueness. That, coupled with its lovely blossoms, makes this tree a sweet one!

5. Attracts Pollinators

The redbud flowers are pollinated by bees; honey bees, bumblebees, long-horned bees, cuckoo bees, mason bees, andrenid bees, and halictid bees. The nectar and pollen found within the redbud blossoms are what draws the bees to the tree.

Don’t Plant A Redbud, If…

  • …you want a tree that lives for a long time.
    • Unfortunately, the redbud is considered short-lived, lasting only 20-50 years.
  • …you want a disease/pest resistant tree.
    • The redbud is prone to some diseases.

Habitat

  • Native to eastern region of U.S.
  • Medium Growth Rate; 13-24” per year
  • Scattered populations
  • Understory occurring in open wooded areas
  • Valley, slopes, bottomlands

Physical Attributes

Leaves

  • Summer Color: dark green
  • Fall Color: pale yellow
  • Shape: heart-shaped
  • Size: 3-5” wide

Bark/Wood

  • Color: gray
  • Furrowing: shallow
  • Scaling: flattened/irregular

Flowers

  • Color: pink/purple/rose/magenta
  • Blooms: March to May
  • Appear before leaves do
“Cercis canadensis sport 46-2011-A” by arb_oretum is licensed under CC by-nc-sa 2.0 

Fruit

  • Color: green
  • Shape: flattened pods (bean-like)
  • Seeds: 6-12 seeds

Uses

  • Native Americans:
    • Medicinal
      • whooping cough
      • Dysentery
      • Fevers
      • Congestion
      • Vomiting
      • Astringent
    • Flowers
      • Food source (fried)
  • Wildlife Attracted:
    • Deer
    • Squirrels
    • Birds
    • Quail

Ease of Care

  • Maintenance: low
  • Water: medium
  • Sun: Full sun to partial shade
  • Potential Disease/Pests
    • Canker
    • Verticillium wilt
    • Dieback
    • Leaf Spot
    • Mildew
    • Blight
    • Japanese beetles
    • Treehoppers
    • Caterpillars
    • Borers
    • Webworm
    • Scale

Cultivars Of Interest

Forest Pansy

• Zones: 5-9
• Height: 20-30 feet
• Spread: 25-30 feet
• Bloom: April
• Flowers: Pink
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance: Low
“Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy'” by Tim Sheerman-Chase is licensed under CC by 2.0 

Lavender Twist

• Zones: 5-9
• Height: 5-6 feet
• Spread: 5-8 feet
• Bloom: Spring
• Flowers:  Pink
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance: Low
2014-04-20 (cc-by-nd-nc-3.0) 

Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida)

An Umbrella of Blooms!

There is an annual anticipation of the blossoms that spring brings to us filling the air with such sweet scents and wowing our eyes with beauty beyond imagination!

The flowering dogwood is a vision to behold as the blossoms unfold and completely envelope the canopy. Simplistic and non-assuming flowers are produced for such a short time by this tree; however, they bring a bold statement to any landscape.

“April Garden: Flowering Dogwood” by Dave Govoni is licensed under CC by-nc-sa 2.0 

What Is A Flowering Dogwood?

Native to the Eastern region of the United States, the flowering dogwood name is derived from “Dagwood.” Centuries ago, people used the stems to make daggers and other weapons. Some claim that the name “Dogwood” came into being due to the sound of a dog barking being generated from the branches hitting each other.

   

                 

   

       

      

       

   

         

   

Genus: Cornus (Latin for ‘horn’)
Family:  Cornaceae
Species: Cornus florida (epithet Latin ‘flos” for flower)
Height: 15-30 feet
Width:  15-30 feet
Zone: 5-9
Growth Rate: Slow/Medium
Sun: Partial Shade
State Tree: Virginia
See the source image

Benefits Of Planting A Flowering Dogwood

  1. Blooms Early in the Season

The flowering dogwood is very popular because it’s an early-season bloomer. The native wild-growing dogwood has white flowers that appear just prior to the leaves emerging on the tree. Dogwoods that are on the market today have white or pink blooms. 

2. Manageable Size

    Growing to a height of 15 – 30 feet high, the flowering dogwood is perfect for planting where         other hardwood trees (pines, oaks, maples) would otherwise be too large to plant. Planting         the flowering dogwood directly in front of your house is not recommended.

3. Autumn Colors

    Beautiful autumn shades of maroon and red adorn the flowering dogwood in fall. This tree is     quite underrated for its autumn colors!

4. Wildlife Benefit

    In the fall, the flowering dogwood produces fruits. As the fruits mature, birds love to         feast on them directly off the tree. Birds also set up residence in the nesting cavities of the         tree. Springtime, you will see butterflies frolicking about the tree blossoms.

5. Hardiness

    Extreme cold fails to bother the flowering dogwood because of the tree’s hardiness. Rarely         does the tree succumb to ice or other winter damage.

Don’t Plant A Flowering Dogwood, If…

  • …you are wanting a fast-growing tree.
    • The flowering dogwood is a slow-growing tree with a maturity rate peaking at about 10 years (possibly less.)
  • …you want a disease/pest resistant tree.
    • The flowering dogwood is highly susceptible to disease/pests.
  • …you live in an arid/hot climate.
    • The flowering dogwood is intolerant of full sun. Growing in the wild, the native dogwood thrives as an understory tree. Because of this, partial shade is best for the flowering dogwood. There is a misconception that full sun is required due to being a flowering tree. Full sun makes this tree vulnerable to disease.

Habitat

  • Eastern region of the U.S.
  • Zones 5-9
  • Does not do well in extremely hot or dry areas
  • Full sun with partial shade

Physical Attributes

Leaves

  • Summer Color: dark green
  • Fall Color: red
  • Shape: oval
  • Size: 3-6” wide

Bark/Wood

  • Color: gray
  • Young: smooth
  • Mature: scaly and blocky

Flowers

  • Color: white
  • Blooms: April to May
  • Showy
“Flowering Dogwood” by Drew Avery is licensed under CC by 2.0

Fruit

  • Color: red 
  • Shape: round (berries)

Uses

  • Ornamental
  • Understory
  • Dye (made from root bark)
  • Native Americans
    • Toothpaste
    • Black ink
    • Analgesic
  • Civil War 
    • Pain reliever (bark tea)
    • Fever (bark tea)
    • Wound covering (leaf emulsion) 
  • Wildlife
    • Birds
    • Deer
    • Fox
    • Squirrel

Ease of Care

  • Maintenance: medium
  • Water: medium
  • Sun: Partial shade (intolerant of sun)
  • Potential Disease/Pests
    • Powdery Mildew
    • Anthracnose
    • Leaf Spot
    • Leaf Scorch
    • Borers
    • Midges
    • Scale

Cultivars Of Interest

Cherokee Brave

• Zones: 5-9 
• Height: 15-30 feet
• Spread: 25-35 feet
• Bloom: May
• Flowers: Pink
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade 
• Maintenance: Medium
“Dogwood, variety: Cherokee Brave” by Tatiana12 is licensed under CC by 2.0 

Cherokee Princess

• Zones: 5-9 
• Height: 15-30 feet
• Spread: 15-30 feet
• Bloom: April
• Flowers: White
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance:  Medium
File:Cornus florida Cherokee Princess 6zz.jpg

Rutgers Hybrids

• Zones: 5-9 
• Height: 12-20 feet
• Spread: 10-20 feet
• Bloom:  time varies
• Flowers: pink
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance:  Medium
“Pink dogwood flowers” by Vironevaeh is licensed under CC by-sa 2.0 

Yoshino Cherry (Prunus x yedoensis)

The Blossoms Speak For Themselves!

A cherry tree is not only synonymous with the arrival of spring, but the name alone resonates a formality that is often associated with George Washington. He did chop down the cherry tree after all! The Yoshino cherry is the tree notably used in our nation’s capital that comes to life each spring bringing hundreds of thousands to see. 

“Yoshino Cherry Trees” by n\xe8gFoto is licensed under CC by-nc-nd 2.0

What Is A Yoshino Cherry?

The Yoshino cherry is native to Japan where it is gorgeous in its native element! These trees adorn the hillsides of Mount Yoshinoyama, Nara Prefecture, Japan

This tree is one of several varieties that are planted in Washington DC. The trip to see these trees when they bloom in DC is well worth it!

Genus: Prunus (Latin meaning ‘plum’)
Family: Rosaceae  
Species: Prunus x yedoensis (epithet meaning ‘Yedo’ (Tokyo) Japan)
Parentage: Prunus speciosa and Prunus subhirtella ‘Rosea’
Height: 30-40
Width:  30-40
Zone: 5-8
Growth Rate: Medium
Sun:  Full sun to partial shade

Benefits Of Planting A Yoshino Cherry

1.Gorgeous Blooms

The Yoshino cherry produces blossoms that are phenomenal and full. These blossoms are     

usually white/pink appearing March – April.

2. Fragrance

The lovely blossoms produce a faint almond fragrance that is pleasant and aromatic.

3. Branching Pattern

The branches of this tree form a nice, aesthetic pattern which will compliment any landscape.   

Don’t Plant A Yoshino Cherry, If…

  • …you want a long-living tree.

The Yoshino cherry is short-lived with a lifespan of 15-30 years.

  • …you prefer a disease/pest resistant tree.

This tree is prone to a host of disease/pests and is not resistant.

Habitat

  • Native to Japan
  • Zones 5-9
  • Full sun with partial shade
  • Moist, well-drained soils
  • Intolerant to drought conditions

Physical Attributes

Leaves

  • Summer Color: dark green
  • Fall Color: yellow
  • Shape: oval
  • Size: 2-4”
  • Double serrated
Image result for yoshino cherry tree leaves

Bark/Wood

  • Color: red/brown
  • Horizontal lenticels are prominent
File:Yoshino cherry tree bark 1.jpg

Flowers

  • Color: white
  • Blooms: March – April
  • Showy
“Cherry Blossoms (Yoshino, Somei-Yoshino) CC by-nc-nd 2.0

Fruit

  • Color: black/red
  • Shape: round (small cherries)
  • Non-littering
Image result for yoshino cherry tree fruit

Uses

  • Ornamental
  • Famously used around tidal basin area of Washington DC
  • Bonsais

Ease of Care

  • Maintenance: medium
  • Water: medium
  • Sun: Full sun to partial shade
  • Potential Disease/Pests
    • Leaf Spot
    • Dieback
    • Leaf curl
    • Aphids
    • Scale
    • Borer
    • Caterpillars
    • Japanese beetles
    • Spider mites

Cultivars Of Interest

Berry (Cascade Snow)

• Zones: 5-9
• Height: 18-25 feet 
• Spread: 16-20 feet
• Flowers: White
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance: Medium
• Foliage: green (summer) yellow (fall)
• Disease/Pests: Resistant

“Weeping Cherry Tree” by kmirwin is licensed under CC by-nc-nd 2.0

Shidare Yoshino (f. perpendens)

• Zones: 5-8 
• Height: 8-15 feet
• Spread: 10-15 feet
• Flowers: White
• Sun: Full sun
• Maintenance: Medium
• Form:  Weeping   

Saucer Magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana)

As Elegant As Audrey Hepburn!

The saucer magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana) produces a magnificent blossom that is breathtaking. This tree will definitely not disappoint when it comes to spring.

The magnolia looked beautiful on a large Parisian hat worn by the lovely Audrey Hepburn. Grabbing her retro shaped sunglasses, and a long glamorous silk scarf, she was off about town. Magnolias have been worn by many as a fashion accessory on things such as hats because of their large size.

“Magnolia x soulangeana \u2018Alexandrina\u2019” by wundoroo is licensed under CC by-nc-sa 2.0

What Is A Saucer Magnolia?

The saucer magnolia is a deciduous hybrid magnolia. It is non-native to the U.S. with an origin from France. It is a multi-stemmed tree with a moderate growth rate slowing down as the tree reaches 20 years of age. The flower buds are large, green, and fuzzy and remain on the tips of the branches throughout winter. These flowers will bloom late winter to early spring prior to the leaves coming out. Large goblet-like flowers spread their massive petals out in shades of pink. The display is quite showy.

Genus: Magnolia
Family: Magnoliaceae   
Species: Magnolia x soulangeana
Height:  20-25 feet
Width: 20-25 feet
Zone: 4-9 
Growth Rate: Medium
Sun: Full sun to partial shade

Planting Range for Saucer Magnolia

Benefits Of Planting A Saucer Magnolia

Stunning Large Blossoms

The saucer magnolia produces 8” blossoms that are very showy with white petals faintly painted with tinges of pinks/purples.

2. Early Bloomer

This tree’s blossoms bloom before the leaves do. The flowers bloom late winter to early spring.

3. Cold Hardy

Able to stand up to the cold temperatures, this tree performs quite well in winter. In winter, the tree displays a showy trunk, winter flower buds, and an unusual form.

Don’t Plant A Saucer Magnolia, If…

  • …you don’t want possible early blooms succumbing to the cold.

The saucer magnolia may bloom too early exposing the blossoms to the cold weather. This weakens the bloom and may cause it to fall off.

  • …you want specimens that are more unique and aren’t planted everywhere.

This tree is very common and tends to be a bit overplanted because of its beauty.

Habitat

  • Native to France
  • Full sun with partial shade
  • Moist, well-drained soils

Physical Attributes

Leaves

  • Summer Color: dark green
  • Fall Color: yellow
  • Shape: oblong
  • Size: 2-4”
Image result for saucer magnolia leaves

Bark/Wood

  • Color: gray
  • Smooth
“Missouri Botanical Gardens – Saucer magnolia bark.” by Blizno CC by-nc-nd 2.0

Flowers

  • Color: white with tinges of pink
  • Blooms: March – April
  • Showy
“Saucer Magnolia” by L. Sloan CC by-nc-nd 2.0

Fruit

  • Color: black/red
  • Inconspicuous
  • Non-littering
“animal park, FAA, Germany, magnolia soulangeana, plant, saucer magnolia, Stuttgart, tree, Tulpen-Magnolie, Wilhelma.jpg” by globetrotter_rodrigo CC by-nc-nd 2.0

Uses

  • Ornamental

Ease of Care

  • Maintenance: medium
  • Water: medium
  • Sun: Full sun to partial shade
  • Potential Disease/Pests
    • Scale
    • Leaf miner
    • Leaf Spot
    • Canker

Cultivars Of Interest

Alba Superba

• Zones: 6-9 
• Height: 15-20 feet
• Spread: 15-20 feet 
• Flowers:  Creamy White with tinges of pink
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade
• Maintenance: Medium
• Foliage:  green (summer) yellow (fall)
• Disease/Pests: Scale, leaf miner, leaf spot, canker
Photo Courtesy of Bob Gutowski, Magnolia x soulangeana ‘Alba Superba’ (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Rustica Rubra

• Zones: 5-9 
• Height:  20-25 feet  
• Spread: 20-25 feet
• Flowers: Pink/Magenta/Purple
• Sun: Full sun to partial shade 
• Maintenance: Low
• Foliage: green (summer) yellow (fall)
• Disease/Pests: Scale, leaf miner, leaf spot, canker
Wundoroo, Magnolia x soulangeana ‘Rustica Rubra’, (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Crabapple (Malus spp.)

Make Room For The Blooms!

Crabapples (Malus spp.) came to the U.S. sometime during the 18th century and were referred to as “jewels of the landscape.” They are native to colder climates in both Asia and Russia and produce fragrant blooms and small apples.

The crabapples are perhaps a bit too tart and bitter for humans, although they are used to make jams and jellies. Wildlife feast on the apples and it’s not uncommon to find a crabapple tree with most of its fruit gone halfway up the tree. Birds, deer, livestock, raccoons, and other small animals readily devour the fruit.

Photo Courtesy of ruffian12003 (CC BY 2.0)

What Is A Crabapple?

There are 25 species of crabapples (Malus species) that are deciduous and native to various regions of the U.S., Europe, and Asia. The profuse blooms that these trees produce are stunning with fruit that may tend to be a little messy.

Genus: Malus Mill. (Latin for ‘apple’)
Family:  Rosaceae (rose family)  
Species: Malus spp.
Height: 15-20 feet
Width:  15-20 feet
Zone: 4-8
Growth Rate: Medium
Sun: Full sun

Benefits Of Planting A Crabapple

  1. Profuse Blossoms

Crabapples are known for producing a beautiful, full canopy of blossoms in spring in varying colors of white, pink, purple, and magenta.

2. Cold Hardy

Able to stand up to the cold temperatures, this tree performs quite well in winter. In winter, the tree displays a showy trunk, winter flower buds, and an unusual form.

3. Nice Form

These trees vary in form, but the overall symmetry and shape are similar. The crown is rounded, upright, and vase-shaped.

4. Ideal for Smaller Areas

If you have a smaller area, this tree is ideal but will still need the required room to grow.

5. Wildlife Benefit

This tree attracts abundant wildlife because of its fruit (apples). Small animals that are tree-climbers (e.g., squirrels, opossums, raccoons) are able to access prime fruit near the top half of the tree whereas other animals such as deer, or livestock forage on the bottom half of the tree. As fruits fall to the ground below, feral hogs and small mammals will gladly devour it. Birds find shelter for nesting within the branches and partake of the fruit as well.

Don’t Plant A Crabapple, If…

  • …you prefer a disease/pest resistant tree.

The crabapple is prone to disease and pests and struggles with fire blight and foliar diseases. When bad disease does hit the tree, it can cause the entire tree to defoliate.

  • …you don’t want messy fruit litter.

The apples produced by this tree will fall to the ground below and begin to rot/decay, causing a mess.

Habitat

  • Native to U.S., Europe, and Asia
  • Full sun
  • Colder climates in Asia and Russia

Physical Attributes

Leaves

  • Summer Color: green
  • Fall Color: yellow
  • Shape: oval
  • Size: 2-4”
Photo Che Dean Crabapples (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Bark/Wood

  • Color: gray
  • Young: smooth
  • Mature: thin and scaly.
Photo Tom Flemming (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Flowers

  • Color: white, pink, red (color varies)
  • Blooms: April – June
  • Showy

Fruit

  • Color: red
  • Small apples (2” wide)

Photo linus_art crabapple (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Uses

  • Ornamental
  • Wildlife
    • Birds
    • Small Mammals
    • Livestock
    • Upland game
  • Jams
  • Jellies
Photo courtesy of normanack, a possum in a crabapple tree (CC by 2.0)

Ease of Care

  • Maintenance: medium
    • Regular watering
    • Fertilization
    • Pruning
  • Water: medium
  • Sun: Full
  • Potential Disease/Pests
    • Fire Blight
    • Scab
    • Leaf Spot
    • Black rot
    • Webworm
    • Cankerworm
    • Apple maggot

Cultivars Of Interest

Prairiefire

• Zones: 4-8 
• Height:  15-20 feet
• Spread: 15-20 feet   
• Flowers: Magenta
• Sun: Full sun
• Maintenance: Medium
• Foliage: green (summer) yellow (fall)
• Disease/Pests: Scab, leaf spot, black rot, webworm, cankerworm, apple maggot, aphids,  Japanese beetle, caterpillar, borers, scale, spider mites

File:Malus Prairie Fire 0zz.jpg
Photo by David J. Stang (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Donald Wyman

• Zones: 5-9   
• Height:  20-25 feet  
• Spread:  17-22 feet 
• Flowers: White   
• Sun: Full sun
• Maintenance: Medium
• Foliage: green (summer) yellow (fall)
• Disease/Pests: Scab, leaf spot, blackrot, webworm, cankerworm, apple maggot, aphids, Japanese beetle, caterpillar, borers, scale, spider mites

Malus 'Donald Wyman', Crabapple 'Donald Wyman', Crab Apple 'Donald Wyman', Fragrant Tree, Red fruit, red berries, Winter fruits, White flowers
Photo Courtesy of Gardenia Plant Finder

References

Brakie, Melinda. 2010. Plant fact sheet for eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis). USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, East Texas Plant Materials Center. Nacogdoches, TX 75964, Retrieved from: https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_ceca4.pdf

(n.d.) Cercis canadensis eastern redbud, USDA, NRCS, Retrieved from:

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ceca4

(n.d.) Cercis canadensis, Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=h550

(n.d.) Cornus florida flowering dogwood, USDA, NRCS, Retrieved from: https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_cofl2.pdf

(n.d.) Cornus florida, Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=c280

(n.d.) Prunus x yedoensis, Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=286608&isprofile=0&

Gilman, E. and Watson, D. (1994 October) Fact Sheet ST-523, a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Retrieve from: http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/pruyeda.pdf

(n.d.) Saucer Magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana,) Gardenia Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

https://www.gardenia.net/plant-variety/saucer-magnolia-magnolia-soulangeana

(n.d.) Saucer Magnolia, Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a885

(n.d.) Magnolia soulangeana Saucer Magnolia, Gardenia Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

https://www.gardenia.net/plant-variety/Saucer-Magnolia-Magnolia-soulangeana

Gilman, E. and Watson, D. (1994 October) Malus spp., Forest Service Dept. of Agriculture, Retrieved from: http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/malsppa.pdf

(n.d.) Crabapples (Apples) Malus species, USDA NRCS, Plant Finder, Retrieved from:

https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_malus.pdf

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